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别把土星条纹想肤浅了,NASA化学家是怎么样在火星大红斑中发现水的

干净财富的脏乱差秘密,词汇解析

原标题:【国际】泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外成本

本期原来的文章选自The Economist 2017-0贰-25的小说Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自澳大利亚国立高阶七版、有道词典等财富。如若你也在求学The
Economist,欢迎订阅作者的文集The
Economist,壹起念书调换。

翻译按:任何贰个行业的革命都会蒙受既有势力的阻拦。读完本文,你将驾驭到洁净能源为什么不能够立即取代旧财富的四个原因,以及也许的缓解方案——政党的参与和调剂。
正文译自《管经济学人》3月十三日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰王国监护人起草的新法律供给向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外国资本费。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

澳门威尼斯赌场官网 1

Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经消息南美洲评价》报纸发表,泰王国发电局(EGAT)务求支付那笔开销作为区块链技术带来的机要影响的补贴。

【一】renewables 可再生财富

文学人封面

今天,类似于图中的西藏南开学同的大白熊形状的太阳能发电类型早就很宽泛了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

澳门威尼斯赌场官网 2

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    干净财富的脏乱差秘密,词汇解析。 the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池和风涡轮机发明大致150年后,他们1如既往只发生世界七%的电力。但是,一些值得注意的事情正在产生。十几年前还处于财富系统的外围,它们今后的增速当先其它其余财富,它们下落的基金使其和化石燃料1样有竞争力
BP,一家原油公司,推断可再生财富将占今后20年满世界财富供应增进的百分之五十。世界正在进入三个干净,Infiniti和减价电力的时日不再是难以置信的。也是时刻难题。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)不过,有1个20万亿美金的小问题。从前天到今后内需在今后几10年多量的投资,以取代旧的喷出谷雾的发电站和升级换代给消费者带来电的电缆塔和电缆。常常投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供保证的报恩。可是,浅油红能源有一个龌龊的私人住房。它配备得更加多,它就会让来自此外来自的电力价格稳中有降越来越多。那使得通向无碳的前程的连接难以控制,在那里面,要是要让灯继续发光的话,许多发电技术,无论清洁依然污染,供给保证毛利。除非市集是一定的,否则对行业的补贴只会增高。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth澳门威尼斯赌场官网, as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是一部有关天气变化和天下变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的本质》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

叁)政策制定者已经把那个尴尬的本质看作停止可再生财富的二个原因。在澳大宁波联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)和玖州的有的地面,可再生能源的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。然则,解决方案不是越来越少的风和太阳能。而是重新思虑世界如何为清新能源定价,以便越来越好地行使它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    4)其核心难点是,政坛支持的可再生财富已经被强加到贰个两样时代设计出的市集。在20世纪的半数以上时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的占据集团制作和平运动载的。从20世纪80年份起头,其中许多独揽被打破,被私有化和趋势,使商场力量能够控制最好投资趋势。明日唯有约陆%的电力用户从垄断集团获得他们的电力。不过,四处去碳电力供应的下压力已经使得国家悄悄潜回市集。那是破坏性的,有多少个原因。第贰是补贴制度自个儿。其余七个是风和日光的质量固有的:它们的间歇性和它们相当低的运维开销。那三个原因扶助解释了为什么电力价格低和国有补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

5)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自2010年的话约为七千亿日币,扭曲了市面。它是由于尊贵的理由——为了对抗天气变化和勉励发展新的、昂贵的技术,包罗风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。然而,由于能源效用的四处增强和金融危害的影响,富裕国家的电力消耗萧规曹随,补贴就在那时候出现。结果导致过量的发电能力,大幅度减少了电力服务公司从科普电力市集赢得的收入,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

陆)其次,水晶绿电源断断续续。风和太阳的变迁莫测——
尤其是在未有适合天气的国度——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在有的时日致电。为了保全电力流动,系统依靠常规的发电站,例如煤、原油或核能,在可再生财富减弱起到职能。可是因为他们长时间居于空闲意况,他们发觉很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了维持灯亮着,他们必要公共基金。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    7)种种人都遭到第6个成分的震慑:可再生能源具有可忽略的或许是零边界运转资本——因为风和阳光是免费的。在1个援助于以最低长时间开支生生产能力源的商海中,风能和太阳能从运维费用越来越高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)那里拿走生意,下落电价,从而降低了全数人的收益。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

8)可再生财富的渗透率越高,这个难点越严重——尤其是在饱满市场。在率先感受到影响的亚洲,电力服务公司遇到了收入下跌、资金财产搁浅和合作社瓦解的“失去的十年”。二〇一八年,德意志两大电力供应商E.ON和PAJEROWE两家都分拆成两家。在U.S.A.可再生财富丰裕的所在,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有多量风力的地点,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有事情可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被再一次调整,因为投资首要去往收益于公私支撑的小圈子。龃龉的是,那代表支持可再生财富的国家越多,他们为正规发电厂支付的也越来越多,来选拔“容积支付”来缓解间歇性。实际上,法学家而不是市面再次决定哪些幸免停电。他们时常犯错误:德国对有利于、脏的褐煤的帮助引起排泄量上涨,固然其对可再生财富提供巨大补贴。未有一种新的章程,可再生能源革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好消息是,新技巧能够帮衬缓解那一个难点。数字化,智能电度量提示仪表和电池使公司和家庭能够解决她俩的需求——例如在夜间做一些财富密集型的干活。那有助于应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的电站,不难灵活调节产能,变得尤为受欢迎,高压电网也能够更有效地在互连网上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1一)越来越大的职责是双重规划电力市集,以显示对灵活供应和须要的新须求。他们应当更频仍地调动价格,以体现气候的波动。在无比稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起功用来阻止停电。商场应该奖励愿意利用更加少的电力的人来抵消电力网,正如他们奖励那么些产生越来越多电力的人。账单能够被组织变成越来越高或更低,那取决于客户多么显明地希望向来保险电力供应——有点像保单。总而言之,政策制定者应该通晓,他们有难点,原因不是可再生财富,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们应有化解它。

初稿出处:医学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于此外商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由自身承担。自己同意简书平台在接获有关文章权人的布告后,删除作品。

澳门威尼斯赌场官网 3

家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数量正在急忙扩张。那正是财富软禁理委员会员会(ERubiconC)必要制订对种种人都公平禁锢的来头。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

进一步多的泰王国公司选取分布式账本技术(DLT)帮衬房主从屋顶太阳能系统中贪图利益。新一代区块链消费者通过在分流的点对点(p二p)资源市场上买卖剩余的太阳能电力资源,导致该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

澳门威尼斯赌场官网 4

201陆年,中国顶住了多于4/10的全球可再生财富,根据一项新的就学展现,那是一项满世界海洋蓝能源合成物的笔录。

换句话说,随着市集范围的恢宏,直接从国营公用事业公司购买的电力减弱,那表示守旧电力行业的净收入裁减。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还吐弃了对非政党太阳能发电的严刻界定。据《都柏林邮报》报纸发表,泰王国政府同意家庭和店铺二零一八年九月将太阳电池板产生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但也许当年并从未料到p二p财富社区会那样高效地利用区块链技术呢。

【叁】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际财富代理主旨(IEA),一家在开设在法国首都的讯问集团,发现可再生产资料源占新财富的三分之一。有史以来第二次,太阳能合成物发展的比包蕴煤炭在内的其它燃料快。

英文原来的书文

【4】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【五】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

去年,满世界太阳能体积增加了50%,在炎黄担当了相近的一半的能量拉长的场合下达到并超过74千兆瓦。同时中中原人民共和国也是海内外用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市场的领导者。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【陆】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

澳门威尼斯赌场官网 5

IEA的实施管事人Fatih
Birol预计在202二年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够增加拾亿瓦特,或许未来海内外用煤量的50%。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“我们正在见证二个新太阳能电板时期的出世,“
Birol说,”大家估算在202二年,太阳能光板的能量会比此外任何可再生产资料源技术升高的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

澳门威尼斯赌场官网 6

In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的报告中,中夏族民共和国被认为是世界上“毫无疑问的可再生产资料源的官员“,在对环境污染和能量目的的忧虑下,可再生产资料源的付出被标明在中华第1一个伍年安插中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告诉中还说神州象征了海内外太阳能板的须求量,中华夏族民共和国创设了芸芸众生百分之60左右的太阳能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

小编:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提议,由于市集的容量,中中原人民共和国策略的上扬会对全世界的太阳能必要,供应和价格发生震慑。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

告诉中标明了中华的可再生财富的补贴和网络集成的价钱不断升高,会对未来的前进有潜在阻碍,并认为中国对可再生财富的政策应当依据那个阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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华夏从停放电价项目升高到有红棕证书的定额分配制。IEA认为这一个新的方针加上能量市场的重新整理,新的电子通信传输线,和分布式发电的扩展会加速太阳能财富的遍布。

【1二】creep in/into sth 最首发出(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在政坛政策化解前进阻碍的情形下,IEA分析发今后202贰年,中中原人民共和国辅导的中外可再生财富的体量会在扩张30%也正是1,150千伏安。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从大地的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的下滑,对晋级新的可再生财富体量做出了进献。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【14】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国政坛进行了风力场的竞价会,两家合作社同意建立每小时发生五7.50日元(约合714日元)的百万沃特t的装置。这些价钱已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的一半。意味着在英帝国,海上风力发电第一次比原子能发电要惠及。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【1伍】solar panel太阳电池板

英帝国和中华的钻研人口近日发布了四个新品类去商量“下1个一时“的风能和波浪能的科学技术。

【1陆】hit发生不良影响,危机

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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United Kingdom的自然财富研究委员会和工程及自然科委会在今后三年会为那个种类出资4百万美元。中国国家自然科学基金委员会也会掏钱。

【一柒】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【1捌】vagaries阪上走丸

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【1玖】kick in开端生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【二一】marginal
costs【会计学】边际开支(指因小额变动而导致总资金的呼应变更)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【2三】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【2四】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,新闻封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【26】smart meter智能电衡量提示仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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